What is Oxymorphone?
Oxymorphone is a very effective prescription opioid that is used to treat various degrees of pain. It is very common for patients who are dealing with chronic pains, bone pains, heart attack, cancer, and severe burns to be prescribed this medication.
It is an opioid pain-relieving drug with functions like those of morphine. It is utilized in the treatment of varying degrees of pain, including pain during childbirth. It might likewise be utilized as anesthesia. On June 8, 2017, FDA asked for Endo Pharmaceuticals to discontinue the sale due to opioid abuse and dangers related to the drug’s injectable reformulation.
Oxymorphone is an opioid substitute for morphine. It is a powerful pain reliever. Opioid analgesics have a profound effect on the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. The major activities that are of medical value are sedation and analgesia. Opioids cause respiratory despondency by coordinated activity on brain stem respiratory centers.
Oxymorphone has been in the US pharmaceutical market since 1959 in different formulas. In 2006, the Federal Drug Agency approved the two commercial variants of this opioid: Opana and Opana ER (extended release).
Oxymorphone might be deliberately abused and taken recreationally by those looking to get high. Individuals who utilize Oxymorphone report feelings of happiness, euphoria and a general reduction in pain.
The medication is delegated as a Schedule II substance, which means it has a high potential for dependence and abuse. Even though Oxymorphone tablets are to be taken orally, individuals abuse the medication in different ways, including nasal insufflation and needle infusion. In December 2011, the FDA endorsed a reformulated brand of the medication that was resistant to crushing, with an end goal to control abuse.
With the perpetual use of oxymorphone, patients may build up a resistance to the medication – leading to consumption of more drugs to experience similar effects. Similar to other Schedule II drugs, Oxymorphone has a high risk of mental as well as physiological dependence and is viewed as hazardous when abused.
Signs and Symptoms of Abuse
The most obvious signs of oxymorphone abuse are outlined below:
- Crushing, injecting, snorting and chewing various forms of the drug
- An unending craving for the drug despite its hazardous consequences
- Lying about pains in other to get new prescriptions
- Paying more priority to drugs rather than responsibilities of family and friends
- Repeated lying to have misplaced a prescription
- Sharing of drugs with friends
- Doctor Shopping
The abuse of oxymorphone can cause physical dependence and tolerance build-up. People that depend on this drug find it hard to stop its use indefinitely as some withdrawal symptoms set in. The degree of withdrawal symptom depends on mental status, physical status, amount ingested, the degree of abuse and health status.
Some withdrawal symptoms are:
- Fast heartbeat
- Watery eyes
The total number of oxymorphone prescriptions in 2007 stood at 268,000. That figure skyrocketed to 1.2 million in 2012. Oxymorphone was associated with 4,599 emergency cases in 2010. By 2011, the number of emergency cases jumped to 12,122, which means 2.6 more individuals were looking for treatment as a result of Oxymorphone.
Opana abuse by means of injection is a global issue. The risk of infection alongside HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C is quite high. The reformulated variant of the medication can be broken up in water and drawn up through a syringe, and needle sharing is very popular among users of injection.
The number of infusions a man may take in 1 day is about 4 to 15, with the number of partners as much as 6 (Conrad, 2015). Drug abuse through infusion is quite dangerous, regardless of the medication.
In January 2015, more than 150 instances of HIV were discovered among individuals who were sharing needles and syringes to take Oxymorphone. Moreover, research has likewise discovered that Oxymorphone by infusion can prompt blood thickening and permanent damage to organs.
The utilization of opioids, for example, Oxymorphone is increasing among pregnant ladies – whether taken to help oversee pain or because of a medication issue. Continued utilization of Oxymorphone can put children at a risk of various birth complications such as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS is noticed in 55-94% of babies who are exposed to opioids. This can make children encounter withdrawal after birth.